The following are brief, non-technical summaries of the research and clinical studies conducted by Dr. McLeod and his associates.

  1. Reversal of Cognitive Aging with Second Heart Training
  2. Maintain your Blood Pressure for Better Brain Function
    (Hypotension and Cognitive Decline Overview)

The following scientific publications detail the research that Dr. Ken McLeod and his associates have conducted on the role of calf muscle pump activity, which led to the development of the Sonostics HeartPartner.

  1. McLeod, KJ and Pierce, CS (2018) Calf Muscle Pump Stimulation Increases Lower Limb Bone Density in Perimenopausal Women. Journal of Bone Biology and Osteoporosis, 4(1): 89-93 (2018).
    Available from: http://www.gratisoa.org/journals/index.php/JBO/article/view/1267
  2. K. J. McLeod and A. Stromhaug (2017) Reversal of cognitive impairment in a hypotensive elderly population using a passive exercise intervention. Clinical Interventions in Aging 12:1859-1866.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5683775/
  3. K. J. McLeod and T. Jain (2017) Postural Hypotension and Cognitive Function in Older Adults. Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine 3:2333721417733216.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28979924
  4. Lynn Baniak, Carolyn Pierce, Kenneth McLeod and Eileen Chasens (2016) Association of Calf Muscle Pump Stimulation With Sleep Quality in Adults. Res Nurs Health 39(6):406-414.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27686225
  5. Lynn Baniak, Carolyn Pierce, Erik Hiester and Kenneth McLeod (2014) Calf Muscle Pump Stimulation as a Means to Reverse Symptoms of Fibromyalgia Syndrome. J Biol Res Nursing 17(3):334-9.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25230749
  6. Kenneth J. McLeod and Carolyn Pierce (2013) Cardiomyopathy in Women: Second Heart Failure. Cardiomyopathies, Prof. Jose Milei (Ed.), InTech, DOI: 10.5772/55433.
    Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/cardiomyopathies/cardiomyopathy-in-women-second-heart-failure
  7. Carolyn Pierce and Kenneth J. McLeod, (2009) Feasibility of treatment of lower limb edema with calf muscle pump stimulation in chronic heart failure. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 8:345-348.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19726231
  8. Carolyn Pierce, Janice Pecen and Kenneth McLeod (2009) Influence of Seated Rocking on Blood Pressure in the Elderly: Implications for improving cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer’s patients. Biol Res Nurs. 11(2):144-51.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19419977
  9. Kenneth J. McLeod, Leann Lesperance and Craig Laramee (2009) Influence of indoor cooling on heat balance and body weight gain in Americans over recent decades. J. Thermal Biology 34:385-390.
    Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306456509000837
  10. Guruprasad Madhavan, Mary Nemcek, David Martinez and Kenneth J. McLeod (2009) Enhancing Hemodialysis Efficacy through Neuromuscular Stimulation. Blood Purification. 27:58-63.
    Available from: https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/167010
  11. Guruprasad Madhavan and Kenneth McLeod (2008) Prevalence and etiology of delayed orthostatic hypotension in adult women. Archives Phys. Med. Rehab. 89:1788-1794.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18760165
  12. Ayana Goddard, Carolyn Pierce and Kenneth J. McLeod (2008) Reversal of lower limb edema by calf muscle pump stimulation. J. Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention 28(3):174-9.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18496315
  13. Carolyn Pierce, Guruprasad Madhavan and Kenneth J. McLeod (2006) Emerging Approaches in the Prevention of Osteoporosis, Osteoporosis: Clinical Guidelines for Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management, S.H. Gueldner ed.
    Available from: http://www.springerpub.com/osteoporosis.html
  14. Guruprasad Madhavan, Julian M. Stewart, and Kenneth J. McLeod (2006) Cardiovascular systemic regulation by plantar surface stimulation. Biomed. Instr. & Tech. 40: 78-84.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16544794
  15. Victor Frankel and Kenneth J. McLeod (2005) Calf muscle pump stimulation as an adjunct to orthopaedic surgery. Surgical Technologies International. 14:297-304.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16525986
  16. Guruprasad Madhavan, Julian M. Stewart and Kenneth J. McLeod (2005) Effect of plantar micromechanical stimulation on cardiovascular responses to immobility. Am. J. Physical Medicine 84:338-345.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15829780
  17. Julian M. Stewart, Carol Karman, Leslie Montgomery and K. J. McLeod (2005) Plantar vibration improves leg fluid flow in perimenopausal women. Am. J. Physiol. Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 288:R623-R629.
    Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15472009
  18. Julian Stewart, Marvin Medow, Leslie Montgomery and Kenneth McLeod (2003) Decreased skeletal muscle pump activity in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome patients with low peripheral blood flow. Am. J. Physiol. (Heart and Circulatory Physiology) 286:H1216-H1222.
    Available from: http://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/ajpheart/early/2003/10/23/ajpheart.00738.2003.full.pdf